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Prof Andy Bushby

Andy BushbyBSc, PhD

Professor of Materials Science

School of Engineering and Materials Science
Engineering 335, Mile End
+44 (0)20 7882 7100

www.sems.qmul.ac.uk/a.j.bushby

Research

Micro-mechanics, Nanoindentation, Nano-structured materials, Biological materials, Electron microscopy

Research Interests

Dr Bushby’s research is centred on the micro- and nano-mechanics of materials and structures. He is a leading expert in the technique of nanoindentation for small-scale mechanical property measurement and contributes to ISO Standards working groups for instrumented indentation. Major research themes include the development of methods using spherical indenters, electromechanical properties of ferroelectric thin films, visco-elastic and composites materials, structure-properties relationships in calcified biological tissues and nano-structured crystalline materials.  Fundamental research has focused on the origin of size effects in mechanical properties and has led to new understanding of the strength of nano-structured materials. A long term goal is to exploit the size effect in novel high-strength, lightweight materials through ‘length-scale engineering’ of their microstructure.  Dr Bushby is also the creator and director of Queen Mary’s NanoVision Centre for advanced microscopy. The Centre encourages overlap between different high-resolution microscopy techniques and between scientists from different disciplines. He has developed ‘volume electron microscopy’ techniques for 3D imaging of biological tissues in collaboration with leading biological imaging groups in the UK.

Publications of specific relevance to Materials Research

Publications

2020

  • Hoxha A, Gillam DG, Agha A, Karpukhina N, Bushby AJ and Patel MP (2020). Novel fluoride rechargeable dental composites containing MgAl and CaAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). Elsevier  Dental Materials  10.1016/j.dental.2020.04.011
  • Wheatland JAT, Spencer KL, Droppo IG, Carr SJ and Bushby AJ (2020). Development of novel 2D and 3D correlative microscopy to characterise the composition and multiscale structure of suspended sediment aggregates. Elsevier Bv  Continental Shelf Research  104112-104112. 10.1016/j.csr.2020.104112
  • Dunstan DJ, Liu D, Li J, Ali W, Pery AD, Herrada N, MILLS D, Owen RA, Burton PA, DONG D, Gannaway G and Bushby AJ (2020). Nanostrain sensitivity in a wire torsion experiment. Aip Publishing  Review of Scientific Instruments  vol. 91, (1) 10.1063/1.5111325

2019

  • Hoxha A, Gillam DG, Bushby AJ, Agha A and Patel MP (2019). Layered double hydroxide fluoride release in dental applications: A systematic review. Mdpi  Dentistry Journal  vol. 7, (3) 10.3390/dj7030087
  • Mohamed MRA, Behraznia T, ALZAHRANI A, Bushby A and Hill R (2019). Machinability of Fluormica Glass-Ceramics of High Mica Volume Fraction., Editors: Richard T. Elsevier  Journal of The European Ceramic Society  10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2019.08.025

2018

  • Elsharkawy S, Al-Jawad M, Pantano MF, Tejeda-Montes E, Mehta K, Jamal H, Agarwal S, Shuturminska K, Rice A, Tarakina NV, Wilson RM, Bushby AJ, Alonso M, Rodriguez-Cabello JC, Barbieri E, Del Río Hernández A, Stevens MM, Pugno NM, Anderson P and Mata A (2018). Protein disorder-order interplay to guide the growth of hierarchical mineralized structures. Nature Communications  vol. 9, (1) 10.1038/s41467-018-04319-0
  • Cackett AJ, Lim JJH, Klup¿ P, Bushby AJ and Hardie CD (2018). Using spherical indentation to measure the strength of copper-chromium-zirconium. Journal of Nuclear Materials  vol. 511, 610-616. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2018.04.012
  • Al-Mosawi M, Davis GR, Bushby A, Montgomery J, Beaumont J and Al-Jawad M (2018). Crystallographic texture and mineral concentration quantification of developing and mature human incisal enamel. Scientific Reports  vol. 8, (1) 10.1038/s41598-018-32425-y
  • DUNSTAN DJ, LI Y and BUSHBY A (2018). Factors determining the magnitude of grain-size strengthening in polycrystalline metals. Elsevier  Materialia  10.1016/j.mtla.2018.08.017
  • Caine M, Zhang X, Hill M, Guo W, Ashrafi K, Bascal Z, Kilpatrick H, Dunn A, Grey D, Bushby R, Bushby A, Willis SL, Dreher MR and Lewis AL (2018). Comparison of microsphere penetration with LC Bead LUMI™ versus other commercial microspheres. Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials  vol. 78, 46-55. 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.10.034

2017

  • Wheatland JAT, Bushby AJ and Spencer KL (2017). Quantifying the Structure and Composition of Flocculated Suspended Particulate Matter Using Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography. Environ Sci Technol  vol. 51, (16) 8917-8925. 10.1021/acs.est.7b00770
  • Shuturminska K, Tarakina NV, Azevedo HS, Bushby AJ, Mata A, Anderson P and Al-Jawad M (2017). Elastin-Like Protein, with Statherin Derived Peptide, Controls Fluorapatite Formation and Morphology. Front Physiol  vol. 8, 368-368. 10.3389/fphys.2017.00368
  • Ashrafi K, Tang Y, Britton H, Domenge O, Blino D, Bushby AJ, Shuturminska K, den Hartog M, Radaelli A, Negussie AH, Mikhail AS, Woods DL, Krishnasamy V, Levy EB, Wood BJ, Willis SL, Dreher MR and Lewis AL (2017). Characterization of a novel intrinsically radiopaque Drug-eluting Bead for image-guided therapy: DC Bead LUMI™. Journal of Controlled Release  vol. 250, 36-47. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.02.001

2016

2015

  • Osiro OA, Hill RG and Bushby AJ (2015). Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 2): Effects on the cement mechanical and ion releasing properties. East African Medical Journal  vol. 92, (10) 481-487.
  • Osiro OA, Hill RG and Bushby AJ (2015). Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 1): Glass synthesis and characterisation, and the effects on the cement handling variables and setting reaction. East African Medical Journal  vol. 92, (10) 473-480.
  • Dong D, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2015). Plasticity and thermal recovery of thin copper wires in torsion. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 95, (16-18) 1739-1750. 10.1080/14786435.2014.979262
  • Armstrong DEJ, Hardie CD, Gibson JSKL, Bushby AJ, Edmondson PD and Roberts SG (2015). Small-scale characterisation of irradiated nuclear materials: Part II nanoindentation and micro-cantilever testing of ion irradiated nuclear materials. Journal of Nuclear Materials  vol. 462, 374-381. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.01.053
  • Hardie CD, Roberts SG and Bushby AJ (2015). Understanding the effects of ion irradiation using nanoindentation techniques. Journal of Nuclear Materials  vol. 462, 391-401. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2014.11.066

2014

  • Dong D, Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2014). Plasticity and thermal recovery of thin copper wires in torsion. Taylor and Francis Ltd.  Philosophical Magazine  10.1080/14786435.2014.979262
  • Young RD, Knupp C, Pinali C, Png KMY, Ralphs JR, Bushby AJ, Starborg T, Kadler KE and Quantock AJ (2014). Three-dimensional aspects of matrix assembly by cellsin the developing cornea. Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences of The United States of America  vol. 111, (2) 687-692. 10.1073/pnas.1313561110
  • Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2014). Grain size dependence of the strength of metals: The Hall-Petch effect does not scale as the inverse square root of grain size. Elsevier/Science Direct  International Journal of Plasticity  vol. 53, 56-65. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2013.07.004

2013

  • Novak P, Gorelik J, Vivekananda U, Shevchuk AI, Ermolyuk YS, Bailey RJ, Bushby AJ, Moss GWJ, Rusakov DA, Klenerman D, Kullmann DM, Volynski KE and Korchev YE (2013). Nanoscale-targeted patch-clamp recordings of functional presynaptic ion channels. Neuron  vol. 79, (6) 1067-1077. 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.07.012
  • Dunstan DJ and BUSHBY AJ (2013). The scaling exponent in the size effect of small scale plastic deformation. Elsevier  International Journal of Plasticity  vol. Volume 40, 152-162. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.08.002
  • Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2013). The scaling exponent in the size effect of small scale plastic deformation. International Journal of Plasticity  vol. 40, 152-162. 10.1016/j.ijplas.2012.08.002

2012

  • Dunstan DJ, Gallé JU, Hou XD, Png KMY, Bushby AJ, Yang B and Kiener D (2012). Yield and plastic flow of soft metals in small volumes loaded in tension and flexure. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 92, (25-27) 3199-3215. 10.1080/14786435.2012.685967
  • Bushby AJ, Feuvrier J, Dong DV and Dunstan DJ (2012). Testing the limits of small scale plasticity with thin wires in torsion. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 1424, 61-65. 10.1557/opl.2012.104
  • Hardie CD, Roberts SG and Bushby AJ (2012). Mechanical behavior of ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys investigated by spherical indentation. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 1424, 1-6. 10.1557/opl.2012.231
  • Crumpton-Taylor M, Grandison S, Png KMY, Bushby AJ and Smith AM (2012). Control of starch granule numbers in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Plant Physiology  vol. 158, (2) 905-916. 10.1104/pp.111.186957
  • Bushby AJ, Roberts SG and Hardie CD (2012). Nanoindentation investigation of ion-irradiated Fe-Cr alloys using spherical indenters. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 27, (1) 85-90. 10.1557/jmr.2011.304
  • Bushby AJ, Mariggi G, Armer HEJ and Collinson LM (2012). Correlative Light and Volume Electron Microscopy: Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy to Image Transient Events in Model Organisms. 10.1016/B978-0-12-416026-2.00018-2
  • Dunstan DJ, Thomas AJ, de Lavau I, Jardin JJ and Bushby AJ (2012). New experimental test of strain-gradient plasticity theory: metal foil sandwich structures in flexure. Philosophical Magazine Letters  vol. 92, (7) 308-313. 10.1080/09500839.2012.669055

2011

  • (2011). Micromechanical testing with microstrain resolution. Rev Sci Instrum  vol. 82, (9) 10.1063/1.3636074
  • (2011). Neuron Cells Uptake of Polymeric Microcapsules and Subsequent Intracellular Release. Macromolecular Bioscience  vol. 11, (6) 848-854. 10.1002/mabi.201000494
  • (2011). Imaging three-dimensional tissue architectures by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy. Nature Protocols  vol. 6, (6) 845-858. 10.1038/nprot.2011.332
  • Mneimne M, Hill RG, Bushby AJ and Brauer DS (2011). High phosphate content significantly increases apatite formation of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses. Acta Biomater  vol. 7, (4) 1827-1834. 10.1016/j.actbio.2010.11.037
  • Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2011). Size effects in yield and plasticity under uniaxial and non-uniform loading: experiment and theory. Philos Mag  vol. 91, (7-9) 1037-1049. 10.1080/14786435.2010.493533
  • Boyde A, Riggs CM, Bushby AJ, McDermott B, Pinchbeck GL and Clegg PD (2011). Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. European Cells and Materials  vol. 21, 470-478. 10.22203/eCM.v021a35
  • Chima-Okereke C, Roberts WL, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2011). The elastic properties of ferroelectric thin films measured using nanoindentation. Springer Series in Materials Science  vol. 140, (1) 543-572. 10.1007/978-90-481-2875-4_11

2010

  • Armer H, Mariggi G, Png K, Genoud C, Monteith A, Bushby A, Gerhardt H and Collinson L (2010). Imaging Transient Blood Vessel Fusion Events by Correlative Volume Electron Microscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis  vol. 16, (S2) 182-183. 10.1017/s1431927610055169
  • Mushtaq N, Png K, Bushby A and Grigg J (2010). Novel Method Of Visualising Adhesion Of Streptococcus Pnuemoniae (D39) To Stimulated Lung Epithelial Cells. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine  vol. 181,
  • Doube M, Firth EC, Boyde A and Bushby AJ (2010). Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site. European Cells and Materials  vol. 19, 242-251. 10.22203/eCM.v019a23
  • Hou XD, Bushby AJ and Jennett NM (2010). Direct measurement of surface shape for validation of indentation deformation and plasticity length-scale effects: A comparison of methods. Measurement Science and Technology  vol. 21, (11) 10.1088/0957-0233/21/11/115105

2009

  • Armer HEJ, Mariggi G, Png KMY, Genoud C, Monteith AG, Bushby AJ, Gerhardt H and Collison LM (2009). Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy. Plos One  vol. 4, (11) 10.1371/journal.pone.0007716
  • Eidelman N, Boyde A, Bushby AJ, Howell PGT, Sun J, Newbury DE, Miller FW, Robey PG and Rider LG (2009). Microstructure and mineral composition of dystrophic calcification associated with the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Research and Therapy  vol. 11, (5) 10.1186/ar2841
  • (2009). Elastic Limit and Strain Hardening of Thin Wires in Torsion. Phys Rev Lett  vol. 103, (15) 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.155501
  • (2009). The strength of thin films, small structures and materials under localised stresses. Thin Solid Films  vol. 517, (13) 3781-3783. 10.1016/j.tsf.2008.12.053
  • Bushby AJ, Zhu TT and Dunstan DJ (2009). Slip distance model for the indentation size effect at the initiation of plasticity in ceramics and metals. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 24, (3) 966-972. 10.1557/JMR.2009.0104
  • Zhu T, Ehrler B, Bushby A and Dunstan D (2009). Geometrical Critical Thickness Theory for the Size Effect at the Initiation of Plasticity. Mrs Advances  vol. 1185, 10.1557/proc-1185-ii05-02

2008

  • Zhu TT, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Materials mechanical size effects: a review. Mater Technol  vol. 23, (4) 193-209. 10.1179/175355508X376843
  • Wang W, Bushby AJ and Barber AH (2008). Nanomechanical thermal analysis of electrospun polymer fibers. Appl Phys Lett  vol. 93, (20) 10.1063/1.3033222
  • Oyen ML, Ferguson VL, Bembey AK, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2008). Composite bounds on the elastic modulus of bone. Journal of Biomechanics  vol. 41, (11) 2585-2588. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.05.018
  • Zhu TT, Hou XD, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Indentation size effect at the initiation of plasticity for ceramics and metals. Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics  vol. 41, (7) 10.1088/0022-3727/41/7/074004
  • Zhu TT, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Size effect in the initiation of plasticity for ceramics in nanoindentation. J Mech Phys Solids  vol. 56, (4) 1170-1185. 10.1016/j.jmps.2007.10.003
  • Ehrler B, Hou XD, Zhu TT, Png KMY, Walker CJ, Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2008). Grain size and sample size interact to determine strength in a soft metal. Philos Mag  vol. 88, (25) 3043-3050. 10.1080/14786430802392548
  • Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ, Firth EC, Howell PGT and Boyde A (2008). Exercise does not affect stiffness and mineralisation of third metacarpal condylar subarticular calcified tissues in 2 year old thoroughbred racehorses. European Cells and Materials  vol. 16, 40-46. 10.22203/eCM.v016a05

2007

  • Koval V, Reece MJ and Bushby AJ (2007). Enhanced ferroelectric loop asymmetry of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 101, (2) 10.1063/1.2430699
  • (2007). Strength of strained quantum wells and other small scale structures. Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Solid State Physics  vol. 244, (1) 93-99. 10.1002/pssb.200672546
  • (2007). Mapping of the Initial Volume at the Onset of Plasticity in Nanoindentation. Mrs Advances  vol. 1049, 10.1557/proc-1049-aa06-03
  • Oyen ML and Bushby AJ (2007). Viscoelastic effects in small-scale indentation of biological materials. Int J Surf Sci Eng  vol. 1, (2-3) 180-197. 10.1504/IJSURFSE.2007.015024

2006

  • Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2006). Viscoelastic properties of bone as a function of hydration state determined by nanoindentation. Philosophical Magazine  vol. 86, (33-35 SPEC. ISSUE) 5691-5703. 10.1080/14786430600660864
  • Bembey AK, Bushby AJ, Boyde A, Ferguson VL and Oyen ML (2006). Hydration effects on the micro-mechanical properties of bone. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (8) 1962-1968. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0237
  • Oyen ML, Bushby AJ, Mann A and Ortiz C (2006). Mechanics of biological and biomimetic materials at small length-scales. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (8) 1869-1870. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0264
  • Chima-Okereke C, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ, Whatmore RW and Zhang Q (2006). Experimental, analytical, and finite element analyses of nanoindentation of multilayer PZT/Pt/SiO2 thin film systems on silicon wafers. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 21, (2) 409-419. 10.1557/jmr.2006.0047
  • Hou XD, Zhu TT, Jennett NM and Bushby AJ (2006). The identation size effect and Hall-Petch behaviour of annealed polycrystalline copper. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 976, 61-66. 10.1557/proc-976-0976-ee09-10
  • (2006). Strength of coherently strained nanolayers under high temperature nanoindentation. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 977, 103-108. 10.1557/proc-977-0977-ff07-04-ee07-04
  • Oyen ML, Bembey AK and Bushby AJ (2006). Poroelastic indentation analysis for hydrated biological tissues. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 975, 122-127. 10.1557/proc-975-0975-dd07-05
  • Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2006). Effect of water on mechanical properties of mineralized tissue composites. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 975, 147-152. 10.1557/proc-975-0975-dd09-04
  • (2006). Size effect in the initiation of plasticity for ceramics in nanoscale contact loading. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 976, 1-6. 10.1557/proc-976-0976-ee06-12
  • (2006). Size Effect in the Initiation of Plasticity for Ceramics in Nanoscale Contact Loading. Mrs Advances  vol. 976, 10.1557/proc-976-0976-ee06-12

2005

  • (2005). Strength of coherently strained layered superlattices. Philos Mag  vol. 85, (36) 4429-4444. 10.1080/14786430500313812
  • Ferguson VL, Oyen ML, Boyde A and Bushby AJ (2005). Mineralization and nanomechanical properties in Articular Calcified Cartilage (ACC). Proceedings of The 2005 Summer Bioengineering Conference  vol. 2005, 960-961.
  • (2005). Effect of coherency strain on the deformation of InxGa1-xAs superlattices under nanoindentation and bending. Philos Mag  vol. 85, (22) 2469-2490. 10.1080/14786430500070909
  • (2005). Measurement of the size effect in the yield strength of nickel foils. Phil Mag Lett  vol. 85, (7) 339-343. 10.1080/09500830500071564
  • Koval V, Reece MJ and Bushby AJ (2005). Ferroelectric/ferroelastic behavior and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films under nanoindentation. Journal of Applied Physics  vol. 97, (7) 10.1063/1.1870092
  • Bembey AK, Oyen ML, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2005). Nanoindentation measurements of bone viscoelasticity as a function of hydration state. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 898, 104-109. 10.1557/proc-0898-l07-04
  • Ntim MM, Bembey AK, Ferguson VL and Bushby AJ (2005). Hydration effects on the viscoelastic properties of collagen. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  vol. 898, 39-43. 10.1557/proc-0898-l05-02
  • Ntim M, Bembey A, Ferguson V and Bushby A (2005). Hydration Effects on the Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen. Mrs Advances  vol. 898, 10.1557/proc-0898-l05-02

2004

  • Towler MR, Twomey E, Bushby AJ, Crowley CM, Doyle J and Hampshire S (2004). The effect of ultrasonic setting on the mechanical properties of glass polyalkenoate cements. Transactions - 7th World Biomaterials Congress 
  • Dunstan DJ and Bushby AJ (2004). Theory of deformation in small volumes of material. P Roy Soc Lond a Mat  vol. 460, (2050) 2781-2796. 10.1098/rspa.2004.1306
  • Algueró M, Calzada ML, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2004). Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of (Pb, Ca)TiO3 thin films under spherical indentation. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 85, (11) 2023-2025. 10.1063/1.1787594
  • Bushby AJ, Ferguson VL and Boyde A (2004). Nanoindentation of bone: Comparison of specimens tested in liquid and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate (vol 19, pg 249, 2004). J Mater Res  vol. 19, (5) 1581-1581. 10.1557/JMR.2004.0211
  • Bushby AJ and Dunstan DJ (2004). Plasticity size effects in nanoindentation. J Mater Res  vol. 19, (1) 137-142. 10.1557/JMR.2004.0016
  • Chima-Okereke C, Reece MJ, Bushby AJ, Whatmore RW and Zhang Q (2004). Nanoindentation of multilayer PZT/Pt/SiO2 thin film systems on silicon wafers for MEMS applications. Mrs Advances  vol. 841, 10.1557/proc-841-r12.3
  • Bushby AJ, Ferguson VL and Boyde A (2004). Nanoindentation of bone: Comparison of specimens tested in liquid and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. J Mater Res  vol. 19, (1) 249-259. 10.1557/jmr.2004.19.1.249

2003

  • Dunstan D, BUSHBY AJ and Gillin W (2003). III-V semiconductors solve mechanical riddle. III-Vs Review  vol. 16, (9) 39-41. 10.1016/S0961-1290(03)00084-X
  • Jayaweera NB, Downes JR, Frogley MD, Hopkinson M, Bushby AJ, Kidd P, Kelly A and Dunstan DJ (2003). The onset of plasticity in nanoscale contact loading. P Roy Soc Lond a Mat  vol. 459, (2036) 2049-2068. 10.1098/rspa.2002.1093
  • Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2003). Nanomechanical properties and mineral concentration in articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone. J Anat  vol. 203, (2) 191-202. 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00193.x
  • BUSHBY AJ (2003). Materials Failure. Navigating The Materials World: a Guide to Understanding Materials Behavior , Editors: Baillie C and Vanasupa L. Academic Press 

2002

  • Algueró M, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ and Seifert A (2002). Anelastic deformation of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films by non-180° ferroelectric domain wall movements during nanoindentation. Applied Physics Letters  vol. 81, (3) 421-423. 10.1063/1.1491291
  • Ferguson VL, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2002). Modulus and mineralisation of articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in osteoarthritis via nanoindentation and quantitative backscattered electron imaging. J Bone Miner Res  vol. 17, (5) 945-945.
  • Ferguson VL, Partap S, Bushby AJ and Boyde A (2002). Thickness of articular calcified cartilage in normal and osteoarthritic human femoral heads. J Bone Miner Res  vol. 17, (5) 952-952.

2001

  • Alguero M, Bushby AJ, Reece MJ, Poyato R, Ricote J, Calzada ML and Pardo L (2001). Stress-induced depolarization of (Pb, La)TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by nanoindentation. Appl Phys Lett  vol. 79, (23) 3830-3832. 10.1063/1.1418258
  • Algueró M, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2001). Measurement of electrical charge during nanoindentation of ferroelectric thin films. Materials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings  vol. 657,
  • Algueró M, Bushby AJ, Hvizdos P, Reece MJ, Whatmore RW and Zhang Q (2001). Mechanical and electromechanical properties of PZT sol-gel thin films measured by nanoindentation. Integrated Ferroelectrics  vol. 41, (1-4) 53-62. 10.1080/10584580108012807
  • Towler MR, Bushby AJ, Billington RW and Hill RG (2001). A preliminary comparison of the mechanical properties of chemically cured and ultrasonically cured glass ionomer cements, using nano-indentation techniques. Biomaterials  vol. 22, (11) 1401-1406. 10.1016/s0142-9612(00)00297-0
  • BUSHBY AJ (2001). Nano-indentation using spherical indenters. Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation  vol. 17, (4) 213-234.
  • Algueró M, Bushby AJ and Reece MJ (2001). Direct measurement of mechanical properties of (Pb,La)TiO3 ferroelectric thin films using nanoindentation techniques. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 16, (4) 993-1002. 10.1557/JMR.2001.0140

1999

1997

  • Healy J, Bushby AJ, Mai YW and Mukhopadhyay AK (1997). Cyclic fatigue of long and short cracks in alumina. J Mater Sci  vol. 32, (3) 741-747. 10.1023/a:1018556322981

1996

  • Wang M, Li M, Bushby AJ, Guiu F, Reece MJ and Sammur MFR (1996). High-temperature Fatigue of a Gas-Pressure-Sintered Silicon Nitride. Journal of The European Ceramic Society  vol. 16, (9) 1009-1020. 10.1016/0955-2219(96)00020-9

1995

1994

  • Bushby A, Guiu F, Knowles J and Reece MJ (1994). Cycle fatigue of silicon nitride at 1000 °C. Key Engineering Materials  vol. 89-91, 673-677.