Professor Paul Anderson

Paul Anderson

Professor of Oral Biology
Leadership Team Member

Institute of Dentistry
Dental Physical Science, Francis Bancroft Building
+44 (0)20 7882 5962


chemistry of enamel and hydroxyapatite, diffusion processes in enamel

Research Interests

My main research area is the chemistry of enamel and hydroxyapatite in the context of de and remineralisation of enamel. Recently, I have developed research into the influence of salivary proteins on these processes, to study their role in enamel homeostasis. I have developed novel X-ray absorption microscopies to assist with these studies, and have also used these technologies to study diffusion processes in enamel, and the efficacy of treatments for dental hypersensitivity. I have been sponsored by the MRC, EPSRC, Wellcome, as well as RAB, and QMUL grants. I currently have several PhD students, and a Postdoctoral research assistant.

Publications of specific relevance to Materials Research



  • Huang WT, Anderson P, Duminis T and Shahid S (2022). Effect of topically applied silver compounds on the demineralisation of hydroxyapatite. Dental Materials  vol. 38, (4) 709-714. 10.1016/
  • Rovera A, Hector M and Anderson P (2022). Parotid saliva 1H-NMR analysis for colon cancer metabolomics: A case report. Special Care in Dentistry  vol. 42, (1) 80-85. 10.1111/scd.12635


  • Alkahtani A, Anderson P and Baysan A (2021). The performance of SoproLIFE for early detection of coronal caries using the International Caries Classification and Management System - A preliminary laboratory-based study. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy  vol. 35, 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102422
  • Farooq I, Ali S, Khurram SA and Anderson P (2021). Dentin. An Illustrated Guide to Oral Histology  10.1002/9781119669616.ch3
  • Farooq I, Ali S and Anderson P (2021). Dental Enamel. An Illustrated Guide to Oral Histology  10.1002/9781119669616.ch2


  • Bennett JH, Beeley JA, Anderson P, Belfield L, Brand HS, Didilescu AC, Dymock D, Guven Y, Hector MP, Holbrook P, Jayasinghe JAP, O'Sullivan J, Riggio M, Roger-Leroi V, Scheven B, Sloan AJ, Vandamme K and Manzanares MC (2020). A core curriculum in the biological and biomedical sciences for dentistry. European Journal of Dental Education  vol. 24, (3) 433-441. 10.1111/eje.12518
  • Zain S, Davis GR, Hill R, Anderson P and Baysan A (2020). Mineral exchange within restorative materials following incomplete carious lesion removal using 3D non-destructive XMT subtraction methodology. Journal of Dentistry  vol. 99, 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103389
  • Kamarudin A, Anderson P and Hill R (2020). The effect of different fluoride varnishes on the release of calcium ions from hydroxyapatite discs: An ion-selective electrodes study. Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry  vol. 32, (2) 10.24198/pjd.vol32no2.26444
  • Rovera A, Rovera G, Alzahrani A, Hector M and Anderson P (2020). Correlation between parotid saliva composition and dental caries using 31P-NMR and ICDAS score. Archives of Oral Biology  vol. 111, 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104651



  • Elsharkawy S, Al-Jawad M, Pantano MF, Tejeda-Montes E, Mehta K, Jamal H, Agarwal S, Shuturminska K, Rice A, Tarakina NV, Wilson RM, Bushby AJ, Alonso M, Rodriguez-Cabello JC, Barbieri E, Del Río Hernández A, Stevens MM, Pugno NM, Anderson P and Mata A (2018). Protein disorder-order interplay to guide the growth of hierarchical mineralized structures. Nature Communications  vol. 9, (1) 10.1038/s41467-018-04319-0
  • Shahid S, ANDERSON P and HUANG WT (2018). Validation of a Real-time ISE Methodology to Quantify the Influence of Inhibitors of Demineralization Kinetics in vitro Using a Hydroxyapatite Model System. Karger Publishers  Caries Research  10.1159/000488597
  • Sleibi A, Tappuni AR, Davis GR, Anderson P and Baysan A (2018). Comparison of efficacy of dental varnish containing fluoride either with CPP-ACP or bioglass on root caries: Ex vivo study. Journal of Dentistry  vol. 73, 91-96. 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.04.009


  • Kazmi S, ANDERSON P and LIVERSIDGE HM (2017). A radiographic study of pulp crown dimensions of the mandibular deciduous second molar. International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health  vol. 4, (1)
  • Hassanali L, Wong FS, Lynch RJM and Anderson P (2017). A Novel Kinetic Method to Measure Apparent Solubility Product of Bulk Human Enamel. Frontiers Media  Front Physiol  vol. 8, 1-9. 10.3389/fphys.2017.00714
  • Shuturminska K, Tarakina NV, Azevedo HS, Bushby AJ, Mata A, Anderson P and Al-Jawad M (2017). Elastin-Like Protein, with Statherin Derived Peptide, Controls Fluorapatite Formation and Morphology. Front Physiol  vol. 8, 368-368. 10.3389/fphys.2017.00368
  • TOMLINS PH, Aden A, Anderson P, Lynch JM and Burnett G (2017). Longitudinal correlation of 3D OCT to detect early stage erosion in bovine enamel. Optical Society of America  Biomedical Optics Express  vol. 8, (2) 954-973. 10.1364/BOE.8.000954


  • Mohammed NR, Lynch RJM and Anderson P (2015). Inhibitory Effects of Zinc Ions on Enamel Demineralisation Kinetics in vitro. Caries Research  vol. 49, (6) 600-605. 10.1159/000441014
  • Tan MHX, Hill RG and Anderson P (2015). Comparing the Air Abrasion Cutting Efficacy of Dentine Using a Fluoride-Containing Bioactive Glass versus an Alumina Abrasive: An in Vitro Study. International Journal of Dentistry  vol. 2015, 10.1155/2015/521901




  • Cochrane NJ, Anderson P, Davis GR, Adams GG, Stacey MA and Reynolds EC (2012). An X-ray Microtomographic Study of Natural White-spot Enamel Lesions. Journal of Dental Research  vol. 91, (2) 185-191. 10.1177/0022034511429570


  • Shah S, Kosoric J, Hector MP and Anderson P (2011). An in vitro scanning microradiography study of the reduction in hydroxyapatite demineralization rate by statherin-like peptides as a function of increasing N-terminal length. Eur J Oral Sci  vol. 119 Suppl 1, 13-18. 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2011.00899.x


  • Kosoric J, Hector MP and Anderson P (2010). The influence of proteins on demineralization kinetics of hydroxyapatite aggregates. J Biomed Mater Res A  vol. 94A, (3) 972-977. 10.1002/jbm.a.32759


  • Mishra S, Thomas HF, Fearne JM, Boyde A and Anderson P (2009). Comparison of demineralisation rates in pre- and postnatal enamel and at the neonatal line. Arch Oral Biol  vol. 54 Suppl 1, S101-S106. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.09.013


  • Kawabata M, Hector MP, Davis GR, Parkinson CR, Rees GD and Anderson P (2008). Diffusive transport within dentinal tubules: an X-ray microtomographic study. Arch Oral Biol  vol. 53, (8) 736-743. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.03.012
  • Santos O, Kosoric J, Hector MP, Anderson P and Lindh L (2008). Adsorption behavior of statherin and a statherin peptide onto hydroxyapatite and silica surfaces by in situ ellipsometry. J Colloid Interf Sci  vol. 318, (2) 175-182. 10.1016/j.jcis.2007.11.015


  • Kosoric J, Williams RAD, Hector MP and Anderson P (2007). A synthetic peptide based on a natural salivary protein reduces demineralisation in model systems for dental caries and erosion. Int J Pept Res Ther  vol. 13, (4) 497-503. 10.1007/s10989-007-9085-0
  • Bollet-Quivogne FRG, Anderson P, Dowker SEP and Elliott JC (2007). Demineralisation of permeable hydroxyapatite with alternating water and acidic buffer: Scanning microradiographic study of effect of switching period. Caries Res  vol. 41, (2) 152-160. 10.1159/000098050


  • Anderson P, Ahmed Y, Patel MP, Davis GR and Braden M (2006). X-ray microtomographic studies of novel radio-opaque polymeric materials for dental applications. Materials Science and Technology  vol. 22, (9) 1094-1097. 10.1179/174328406X114180
  • Potter K, Sweet DE, Anderson P, Davis GR, Isogai N, Asamura S, Kusuhara H and Landis WJ (2006). Non-destructive studies of tissue-engineered phalanges by magnetic resonance microscopy and X-ray microtomography. Bone  vol. 38, (3) 350-358. 10.1016/j.bone.2005.08.025



  • Wong FSL, Anderson P, Fan H and Davis GR (2004). X-ray microtomographic study of mineral concentration distribution in deciduous enamel. Arch Oral Biol  vol. 49, (11) 937-944. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.05.011
  • Washburn NR, Weir M, Anderson P and Potter K (2004). Bone formation in polymeric scaffolds evaluated by proton magnetic resonance microscopy and X-ray microtomography. J Biomed Mater Res A  vol. 69A, (4) 738-747. 10.1002/jbm.a.30054
  • Fearne J, Anderson P and Davis GR (2004). 3D X-ray microscopic study of the extent of variations in enamel density in first permanent molars with idiopathic enamel hypomineralisation. Br Dent J  vol. 196, (10) 634-638. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811282
  • Anderson P, Bollet-Quivogne FRG, Dowker SEP and Elliott JC (2004). Demineralization in enamel and hydroxyapatite aggregates at increasing ionic strengths. Arch Oral Biol  vol. 49, (3) 199-207. 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2003.10.001


  • Anderson P, Sundstedt A, Li L, O'Neill EJ, Li S, Wraith DC and Wang P (2003). Differential activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and STAT5 and induction of suppressors of cytokine signalling in T(h)1 and T(h)2 cells. Int Immunol  vol. 15, (11) 1309-1317. 10.1093/intimm/dxg130
  • Justice I, Derby B, Davis G, Anderson P and Elliott J (2003). Characterisation of void and reinforcement distributions in a metal matrix composite by X-ray edge-contrast microtomography. Scripta Mater  vol. 48, (9) 1259-1264. 10.1016/S1359-6462(03)00050-2
  • Mercer CE, Anderson P and Davis GR (2003). Sequential 3D X-ray microtomographic measurement of enamel and dentine ablation by an Er:YAG laser. Br Dent J  vol. 194, (2) 99-104. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809883
  • ANDERSON P, Dowker SEP, Elliott JC and Bollet-Quivogne F (2003). Scanning Microradiography - a digital 2-D X-ray imaging technique. Git Imaging & Microscopy  vol. 5, 22-24.


  • Driscoll CO, Dowker SEP, Anderson P, Wilson RM and Gulabivala K (2002). Effects of sodium hypochlorite solution on root dentine composition. J Mater Sci-Mater M  vol. 13, (2) 219-223. 10.1023/a:1013894432622
  • ANDERSON P, Dowker SEP, Davis GR, Elliot JC, Boyde A, Ignatiev K, Goodship A, Stock SR and Wassif HS (2002). Non-destructive 3D structural studies by X-ray microtomography. Advances in X-Ray Analysis  vol. 45, 485-490.


  • Lennon AM, Anderson PF, McDonald JL and Stookey GK (2001). Problem-based learning and the dental school library. Journal of Dental Education  vol. 65, (11) 1219-1224. 10.1002/j.0022-0337.2001.65.11.tb03480.x
  • Anderson P, Hector MP and Rampersad MA (2001). Critical pH in resting and stimulated whole saliva in groups of children and adults. Int J Paediatr Dent  vol. 11, (4) 266-273. 10.1046/j.1365-263x.2001.00293.x
  • Groth EB, Mercer CE and Anderson P (2001). Microtomographic analysis of subsurface enamel and dentine following Er:YAG laser and acid etching. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent  vol. 9, (2) 73-79.
  • Peariasamy K, Anderson P and Brook AH (2001). A quantitative study of the effect of pumicing and etching on the remineralisation of enamel opacities. Int J Paediatr Dent  vol. 11, (3) 193-200. 10.1046/j.1365-263x.2001.00267.x


  • De Santis R, Anderson P, Tanner KE, Ambrosio L, Nicolais L, Bonfield W and Davis GR (2000). Bone fracture analysis on the short rod chevron-notch specimens using the X-ray computer micro-tomography. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine  vol. 11, (10) 629-636. 10.1023/A:1008909830421
  • Wong FSL, Elliott JC, Davis GR and Anderson P (2000). X-ray microtomographic study of mineral distribution in enamel of mandibular rat incisors. Journal of Anatomy  vol. 196, (3) 405-413. 10.1017/S0021878299006226
  • Morgan H, Wilson RM, Elliott JC, Dowker SEP and Anderson P (2000). Preparation and characterisation of monoclinic hydroxyapatite and its precipitated carbonate apatite intermediate. Biomaterials  vol. 21, (6) 617-627. 10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00225-2
  • Zhang XZ, Anderson P, Dowker SEP and Elliott JC (2000). Optical Profilometric Study of Changes in Surface Roughness of Enamel during in vitro Demineralization. Caries Research  vol. 34, (2) 164-174. 10.1159/000016585
  • Anderson P and Elliott JC (2000). Rates of Mineral Loss in Human Enamel during in vitro Demineralization Perpendicular and Parallel to the Natural Surface. Caries Research  vol. 34, (1) 33-40. 10.1159/000016567


  • Dowker SEP, Anderson P and Elliott JC (1999). Real-time measurement of in vitro enamel demineralization in the vicinity of the restoration-tooth interface. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine  vol. 10, (6) 379-382. 10.1023/A:1026434009665
  • Kozul N, Davis GR, Anderson P and Elliott JC (1999). Elemental quantification using multiple-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Measurement Science and Technology  vol. 10, (3) 252-259. 10.1088/0957-0233/10/3/023
  • Dowker SEP, Anderson P, Elliott JC and Gao XJ (1999). Crystal chemistry and dissolution of calcium phosphate in dental enamel. Mineralogical Magazine  vol. 63, (6) 791-800. 10.1180/002646199548934


  • Anderson P, Levinkind M and Elliott JC (1998). Scanning microradiographic studies of rates of in vitro demineralization in human and bovine dental enamel. Archives of Oral Biology  vol. 43, (8) 649-656. 10.1016/S0003-9969(98)00052-1
  • Morgan H, Wilson RM, Elliott JC, Dowker SEP and Anderson P (1998). Cells for the Study of Acidic Dissolution in Packed Apatite Powders as Model Systems for Dental Caries. Caries Research  vol. 32, (6) 428-434. 10.1159/000016483


  • Elliott JC, Davis GR, Anderson P, Wong FSL, Dowker SEP and Mercer CE (1997). Application of laboratory microtomography to the study of mineralised tissues. Anales De Quimica  vol. 93, (1 SUPPL. 1)
  • Justice I, Anderson P, Davis G, Derby B and Elliott J (1997). Damage nucleation and growth in particle reinforced aluminium matrix composites. Key Engineering Materials  vol. 127-131, (Pt 2) 945-952.


  • Anderson P, Dowker SEP, Elliott JC and Thomas CR (1996). Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis in the study of dental mineralized tissues. Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques  vol. 14, (3) 541-560.
  • Mercer CE and Anderson P (1996). X-ray microtomography: A novel technique for the quantification of effects in enamel following CO2 laser application. British Dental Journal  vol. 180, (12) 451-455. 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809125
  • Anderson P, Davis GR and Ahluwalia MHK (1996). Monitoring de- and remineralisation of enamel in vitro using an infrared reflectance meter. Caries Research  vol. 30, (6) 394-399. 10.1159/000262350
  • Dowker SEP, Anderson P and Elliott JC (1996). X-ray microradiographic determination of diffusion coefficients within porous media based on Fick's 2nd Law: Theory and error analysis. Microscopy Microanalysis Microstructures  vol. 7, (1) 49-63. 10.1051/mmm:1996102
  • Anderson P, Elliott JC, Bose U and Jones SJ (1996). A comparison of the mineral content of enamel and dentine in human premolars and enamel pearls measured by X-ray microtomography. Archives of Oral Biology  vol. 41, (3) 281-290. 10.1016/0003-9969(95)00122-0


  • Wong FSL, Elliott JC, Anderson P and Davis GR (1995). Mineral concentration gradients in rat femoral diaphyses measured by X-ray microtomography. Calcified Tissue International  vol. 56, (1) 62-70. 10.1007/BF00298746
  • MUMMERY PM, DERBY B, ANDERSON P, DAVIS GR and ELLIOTT JC (1995). X‐ray microtomographic studies of metal matrix composites using laboratory X‐ray sources. Journal of Microscopy  vol. 177, (3) 399-406. 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1995.tb03570.x


  • Elliott JC, Anderson P, Davis GR, Leng Wong FS and Dover SD (1994). Computed tomography part II: The practical use of a single source and detector. Jom  vol. 46, (3) 11-19. 10.1007/BF03220641
  • Elliott JC, Anderson P, Gao XJ, Wong FSL, Davis GR and Dowker SEP (1994). Application of scanning microradiography and x-ray microtomography to studies of bones and teeth. Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology  vol. 4, (2) 102-117. 10.3233/XST-1994-4204


  • Gao XJ, Elliott JC, Anderson P and Davis GR (1993). Scanning microradiographic and microtomographic studies of remineralisation of subsurface enamel lesions. Journal of The Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions  vol. 89, (15) 2907-2912. 10.1039/FT9938902907
  • Mummery PM, Anderson P, Davis GR, Derby B and Elliott JC (1993). Damage assessment in particle-reinforced metal matrix composites using x-ray microtomography. Scripta Metallurgica Et Materiala  vol. 29, (11) 1457-1462. 10.1016/0956-716X(93)90336-Q
  • Breunig TM, Stock SR, Guvenilir A, Elliott JC, Anderson P and Davis GR (1993). Damage in aligned-fibre SiC/Al quantified using a laboratory X-ray tomographic microscope. Composites  vol. 24, (3) 209-213. 10.1016/0010-4361(93)90165-5
  • Mummery PM, Derby B, Anderson P, Davis G and Elliott JC (1993). X-ray microtomography of damage in particle-reinforced metal matrix composites. Journal De Physique  vol. 3, (7 pt 3) 1857-1860. 10.1051/jp4:19937297
  • Gao XJ, Elliott JC and Anderson P (1993). Scanning Microradlographic Study of the Kinetics of Subsurface Demineralization In Tooth Sections under Constant-composition and Small Constant-volume Conditions. Journal of Dental Research  vol. 72, (5) 923-930. 10.1177/00220345930720051401
  • Anderson P, Elliott JC, Thomas CR and Van Langevelde F (1993). Study of diffusion coefficients in multi‐component solutions using the daresbury synchrotron x‐ray fluorescence microprobe. X?Ray Spectrometry  vol. 22, (4) 265-271. 10.1002/xrs.1300220417


  • Elliott JC, Anderson P, Davis GR, Wong FSL, Gao XJ, Dover SD and Boyde A (1992). X-Ray Microtomographic Studies of Bones and Teeth. X-Ray Microscopy III  10.1007/978-3-540-46887-5_105
  • Anderson P and Elliott JC (1992). Subsurface Demineralization in Dental Enamel and Other Permeable Solids During Acid Dissolution. Journal of Dental Research  vol. 71, (8) 1473-1481. 10.1177/00220345920710080301


  • Gao XJ, Elliott JC and Anderson P (1991). Scanning and Contact Microradiographic Study of the Effect of Degree of Saturation on the Rate of Enamel Demineralization. Journal of Dental Research  vol. 70, (10) 1332-1337. 10.1177/00220345910700100401


  • Leaist DG, Anderson P and Elliott JC (1990). Diffusion coefficients for the ternary system Ca(OH)2-H3PO4-water. Journal of The Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions  vol. 86, (18) 3093-3095. 10.1039/FT9908603093
  • Elliott JC, Anderson P, Davis G, Dover SD, Stock SR, Breunig TM, Guvenilir A and Antolovich SD (1990). Application of x-ray microtomography in materials science illustrated by a study of a continuous fiber metal matrix composite. Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology  vol. 2, (4) 249-258. 10.3233/XST-1990-2402


  • Anderson P and Elliott JC (1987). Coupled diffusion as basis for subsurface demineralization in dental caries. Caries Research  vol. 21, (6) 522-525. 10.1159/000261061
  • Dibdin GH, Elliott JC and Anderson P (1987). Characterization of a synthetic apatite sinter for study of diffusion processes during acidic dissolution of dental enamel and other porous solids. Journal of Materials Research  vol. 2, (2) 178-181. 10.1557/JMR.1987.0178


  • Anderson P and Elliott JC (1985). Scanning X-ray microradiographic study of the formation of caries-like lesions in synthetic apatite aggregates. Caries Research  vol. 19, (5) 403-406. 10.1159/000260874