Professor Steffi Krause

Steffi Krause

Professor of Electroanalytical Systems

School of Engineering and Materials Science
Engineering 223, Mile End
+44 (0)20 7882 3747


development of chemical and biological sensors, electrochemical imaging, Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors, Scanning Photo-induced Impedance Microscopy, spectroscopy

Research Interests

Professor Krause's research focuses on biosensor and gas sensor development and electrochemical imaging.

Disposable biosensors for the detection of enzyme activities based on the enzymatic degradation of thin polymer films have been developed. Film degradation in the presence of an enzyme is monitored using impedance and Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Inflammation and bacterial infection are frequently accompanied by increased levels of host and bacterial proteases. Current efforts are therefore directed at the development of polymers that are degraded specifically by different proteases.

A novel technique, Scanning Photo-induced Impedance Microscopy, which allows the use of impedance measurements for the imaging of film properties, has been developed. It can be used for characterising the local properties of a wide range of different materials. Links with cell biologists and materials scientists have been established to explore applications of this technique in medicine, materials development and protein research.

Achieving a high degree of selectivity is still a major challenge in the development of gas sensors. Our efforts are directed at the development of multifunctional devices by integrating carbon nanotubes into field-effect gas sensors.

Publications of specific relevance to Materials Research



  • Zhou B, Das A, Zhong M, Guo Q, Zhang DW, Hing KA, Sobrido AJ, Titirici MM and Krause S (2021). Photoelectrochemical imaging system with high spatiotemporal resolution for visualizing dynamic cellular responses. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 180, 10.1016/j.bios.2021.113121


  • Tu Y, Kyle C, Luo H, Zhang DW, Das A, Briscoe J, Dunn S, Titirici MM and Krause S (2020). Ammonia Gas Sensor Response of a Vertical Zinc Oxide Nanorod-Gold Junction Diode at Room Temperature. Acs Sensors  vol. 5, (11) 3568-3575. 10.1021/acssensors.0c01769


  • Zhou B, Das A, Kappers M, Oliver R, Humphreys C and Krause S (2019). InGaN as a substrate for AC photoelectrochemical imaging. Mdpi  Sensors  10.3390/s19204386
  • Wang J, Yang Z, Chen W, Du L, Jiao B, Krause S, Wang P, Wei Q, Zhang D-W and Wu C (2019). Modulated light-activated electrochemistry at silicon functionalized with metal-organic frameworks towards addressable DNA chips. Elsevier  Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 146, 111750-111750. 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111750
  • Wan K, Taroni PJ, Liu Z, Liu Y, Tu Y, Santagiuliana G, Hsia I, Zhang H, Fenwick O, Krause S, Baxendale M, Schroeder BC and Bilotti E (2019). Flexible and Stretchable Self‐Powered Multi‐Sensors Based on the N‐Type Thermoelectric Response of Polyurethane/Na x (Ni‐ett) n Composites. Wiley  Advanced Electronic Materials  1900582-1900582. 10.1002/aelm.201900582
  • Ahmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Gautrot JE, Watkinson M, Becer CR and Krause S (2019). Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(2-oxazoline) as a Sensor Material for the Detection of Proteases with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Biomacromolecules  vol. 20, (7) 2506-2514. 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00245
  • Wu F, Zhou B, Wang J, Zhong M, Das A, Watkinson M, Hing K, Zhang D-W and Krause S (2019). Photoelectrochemical Imaging System for the Mapping of Cell Surface Charges. Anal Chem  10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00304
  • Ahmad N, Colak B, Zhang DW, Gibbs MJ, Watkinson M, Remzi Becer C, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2019). Peptide cross-linked poly (Ethylene glycol) hydrogel films as biosensor coatings for the detection of collagenase. Sensors (Switzerland)  vol. 19, (7) 10.3390/s19071677


  • Zhang D, Papaioannou N, Titirici M-M and Krause S (2018). Photoelectrochemical Imaging Using Carbon Dots (CDs) Derived from Chitosan. Conference Proceedings  vol. 2, (13) 10.3390/proceedings2130778
  • Ahmad N, Colak B, Gibbs MJ, Zhang D-W, Becer CR, Watkinson M, Gautrot JE and Krause S (2018). Collagenase Biosensor Based on the Degradation of Peptide Cross-Linked Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogel Films. 10.3390/proceedings2130961
  • TU Y, AHMAD N, BRISCOE J, ZHANG D and KRAUSE S (2018). Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors using ZnO Nanorods as the Sensor Substrate for Bioanalytical Applications. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02244
  • Wang J, Du L, Krause S, Wu C and Wang P (2018). Surface modification and construction of LAPS towards biosensing applications. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical  vol. 265, 161-173. 10.1016/j.snb.2018.02.190
  • ZHANG D, PAPAIOANNOU N, David NM, LUO H, GAO H, Tanase LC, Degousee T, Samori P, SAPELKIN A, FENWICK O, TITIRICI M and KRAUSE SK (2018). Photoelectrochemical response of carbon dots (CDs) derived from chitosan and their use in electrochemical imaging. Rsc  Materials Horizons  10.1039/c7mh00784a
  • TU Y, CHEN S, LI X, GORBACIOVA J, GILLIN WP, KRAUSE S and BRISCOE J (2018). Control of oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanorods by annealing and their influence on ZnO/PEDOT:PSS diode behaviour. Royal Society of Chemistry  Journal of Materials Chemistry C  10.1039/C7TC04284A
  • Yoshinobu T, Krause S, Miyamoto K-I, Werner CF, Poghossian A, Wagner T and Schöning MJ (2018). (Bio-)chemical Sensing and Imaging by LAPS and SPIM. Label-Free Biosensing  10.1007/5346_2017_22
  • Schöning MJ, Wagner T, Poghossian A, Miyamoto KI, Werner CF, Krause S and Yoshinobu T (2018). Light-addressable potentiometric sensors for (bio-)chemical sensing and imaging. Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry  10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.13483-3


  • Zhang D, Wu F and KRAUSE SK (2017). LAPS and SPIM imaging using ITO coated glass as the substrate material. American Chemical Society  Analytical Chemistry  10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01898
  • Wu F, Campos I, Zhang D and KRAUSE SK (2017). Biological imaging using light-addressable potentiometric sensors and scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Royal Society, The  Proceedings of The Royal Society a: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences  10.1098/rspa.2017.0130
  • Wu F, Zhang DW, Wang J, Watkinson M and Krause S (2017). Copper Contamination of Self-Assembled Organic Monolayer Modified Silicon Surfaces Following a “Click” Reaction Characterized with LAPS and SPIM. Langmuir  vol. 33, (13) 3170-3177. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03831


  • Zhang DW, Wu F, Wang J, Watkinson M and KRAUSE SK (2016). Image detection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS). Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 72, 41-45. 10.1016/j.elecom.2016.08.017
  • Wang J, Campos I, Wu F, Zhu J, Sukhorukov GB, Palma M, Watkinson M and Krause S (2016). The effect of gold nanoparticles on the impedance of microcapsules visualized by scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 208, 39-46. 10.1016/j.electacta.2016.05.017


  • Wang J, Wu F, Watkinson M, Zhu J and Krause S (2015). click Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors. Langmuir  vol. 31, (35) 9646-9654. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02069
  • Gibbs MJ, Biela A and Krause S (2015). α-Amylase sensor based on the degradation of oligosaccharide hydrogel films monitored with a quartz crystal sensor. Biosens Bioelectron  vol. 67, 540-545. 10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.036
  • Wang J, Zhou Y, Watkinson M, Gautrot J and Krause S (2015). High-sensitivity light-addressable potentiometric sensors using silicon on sapphire functionalized with self-assembled organic monolayers. Elsevier  Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  vol. 209, 230-236. 10.1016/j.snb.2014.11.071
  • Zhang H, Yilmaz P, Ansari JO, Khan FF, Binions R, Krause S and Dunn S (2015). Incorporation of Ag nanowires in CuWO4 for improved visible light-induced photoanode performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry A  vol. 3, (18) 9638-9644. 10.1039/c4ta07213h
  • Biela A, Watkinson M, Meier UC, Baker D, Giovannoni G, Becer CR and Krause S (2015). Disposable MMP-9 sensor based on the degradation of peptide cross-linked hydrogel films using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 68, 660-667. 10.1016/j.bios.2015.01.060


  • Dzaraini K, Norizan A, Krause S, Hunter C and Milanesi L (2013). Degradation behaviour of thin polymer films of poly (amide ester) hydrogel using quartz crystal microbalance. Advanced Materials Research  vol. 812, 38-45. 10.4028/


  • Zhang DW, Zhang FT, Cui YR, Deng QP, Krause S, Zhou YL and Zhang XX (2012). A label-free aptasensor for the sensitive and specific detection of cocaine using supramolecular aptamer fragments/target complex by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Talanta  vol. 92, 65-71. 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.01.049


  • Zheng X, Cook JP, Watkinson M, Yang S, Douglas I, Rawlinson A and Krause S (2011). Generic protease detection technology for monitoring periodontal disease. Faraday Discussions  vol. 149, 37-47. 10.1039/c005364c


  • Chen L, Zhou Y, Jiang S, Kunze J, Schmuki P and Krause S (2010). High resolution LAPS and SPIM. Electrochemistry Communications  vol. 12, (6) 758-760. 10.1016/j.elecom.2010.03.026


  • Kamarun D, Zheng XW, Milanesi L, Hunter CA and Krause S (2009). A peptide cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogel for the detection of human neutrophil elastase. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 54, (22) 4985-4990. 10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.067
  • Stair JL, Watkinson M and Krause S (2009). Sensor materials for the detection of proteases. Biosensors and Bioelectronics  vol. 24, (7) 2113-2118. 10.1016/j.bios.2008.11.002
  • Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Selected Papers from the Second International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications, 2007. J Mater Sci-Mater El  vol. 20, 1-2. 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z
  • Sweeney SJ and Krause S (2009). Editorial: Selected papers from the second international conference on optical, optoelectronic and photonic materials and applications, 2007. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics  vol. 20, (SUPPL. 1) 10.1007/s10854-008-9740-z


  • Chen L, Zhou Y, Krause S, Munoz AG, Kunze J and Schmuki P (2008). Repair of thin thermally grown silicon dioxide by anodic oxidation. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 53, (8) 3395-3402. 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.11.065


  • Zhou Y, Jiang S, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Biosensor arrays based on the degradation of thin polymer films interrogated by scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (23) 8974-8978. 10.1021/ac071437t
  • Zhou Y, Chen L, Krause S and Chazalviel J-N (2007). Scanning photoinduced impedance microscopy using amorphous silicon photodiode structures. Anal Chem  vol. 79, (16) 6208-6214. 10.1021/ac070797d


  • Krause S, Moritz W, Talabani H, Xu M, Sabot A and Ensell G (2006). Scanning Photo-Induced Impedance Microscopy - Resolution studies and polymer characterization. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 51, (8-9) 1423-1430. 10.1016/j.electacta.2005.02.119
  • KRAUSE SK, Fernandez-Sanchez C and McNeil CJ (2006). Sensors based on thin film degradation. Encyclopedia of Sensors  American Scientific Publishers 


  • Moritz W, Yoshinobu T, Finger F, Krause S, Martin-Fernandez M and Schoning MJ (2004). High resolution LAPS using amorphous silicon as the semiconductor material. Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical  vol. 103, (1-2) 436-441. 10.1016/j.snb.2004.04.073



  • Sabot A and Krause S (2002). Simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance impedance and electrochemical impedance measurements. Investigation into the degradation of thin polymer films. Anal Chem  vol. 74, (14) 3304-3311. 10.1021/ac0200724
  • Krause S, Talabani H, Xu M, Moritz W and Griffiths J (2002). Scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy - an impedance based imaging technique. Electrochimica Acta  vol. 47, (13-14) 2143-2148. 10.1016/S0013-4686(02)00088-9


  • Sumner C, Krause S, Sabot A, Turner K and McNeil CJ (2001). Biosensor based on enzyme-catalysed degradation of thin polymer films. Biosensors & Bioelectronics  vol. 16, (9-12) 709-714. 10.1016/s0956-5663(01)00210-x
  • Moritz W, Krause S, Roth U, Klimm D and Lippitz A (2001). Re-activation of an all solid state oxygen sensor. Anal Chim Acta  vol. 437, (2) 183-190. 10.1016/S0003-2670(01)00993-X


  • Sumner C, Sabot A, Turner K and Krause S (2000). A transducer based on enzyme-induced degradation of thin polymer films monitored by surface plasmon resonance. Anal Chem  vol. 72, (21) 5225-5232. 10.1021/ac000411y
  • Moritz W, Gerhardt I, Roden D, Xu M and Krause S (2000). Photocurrent measurements for laterally resolved interface characterization. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry  vol. 367, (4) 329-333. 10.1007/s002160000409


  • Ho WO, Krause S, McNeil CJ, Pritchard JA, Armstrong RD, Athey D and Rawson K (1999). Electrochemical sensor for measurement of urea and creatinine in serum based on ac impedance measurement of enzyme-catalyzed polymer transformation. Anal Chem  vol. 71, (10) 1940-1946. 10.1021/ac981367d


  • Moritz W, Krause S, Bartholomäus L, Gabusjan T, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1998). Silicon-Based Sensor for Flourine Gas. Acs Symposium Series  vol. 690, 119-129. 10.1021/bk-1998-0690.ch010


  • McNeil CJ, Athey D, Ball M, Ho WO, Krause S, Armstrong RD, Des Wright J and Rawson K (1995). Electrochemical Sensors Based on Impedance Measurement of Enzyme-Catalyzed Polymer Dissolution: Theory and Applications. Analytical Chemistry  vol. 67, (21) 3928-3935. 10.1021/ac00117a018
  • Moritz W, Krause S, Vasiliev AA, Godovski DY and Malyshev VV (1995). Monitoring of HF and F2 using a field-effect sensor. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 24, (1-3) 194-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(95)85041-4


  • Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1994). Improved long-term stability for an LaF3 based oxygen sensor. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 18, (1-3) 148-154. 10.1016/0925-4005(94)87074-8


  • Krause S, Moritz W and Grohmann I (1992). A low-temperature oxygen sensor based on the Si/LaF3/Pt capacitive structure. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 9, (3) 191-196. 10.1016/0925-4005(92)80215-j


  • Bobrov PV, Tarantov YA, Krause S and Moritz W (1991). Chemical sensitivity of an ISFET with Ta2O5 membrane in strong acid and alkaline solutions. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical  vol. 3, (1) 75-81. 10.1016/0925-4005(91)85010-g


Grants of specific relevance to Materials Research
3D Photoelectrochemical imaging in porous light-addressable structures
Krause SK, Zhou B and Iskratsch T
£202,249 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-02-2021 - 31-10-2022)
Combined LAPS and SICM for multimodal live cell imaging
Wang W, Krause SK and Das A
£571,838 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (01-09-2018 - 31-08-2022)

Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) for zinc imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution for elucidating the role of zinc in age related macular degeneration
Krause SK and Das A
£146,591 Horizon 2020 (01-07-2017 - 30-06-2019)
Towards in-vivo electrochemical imaging with flexible, light-addressable electrodes
Krause SK and Fenwick OJ
£15,000 Royal Society (15-03-2018 - 14-03-2019)
Super-resolution Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPS)
Krause SK, Zhang D and Castrejon Pita JR
£147,661 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (20-07-2017 - 19-07-2018)